Unit 2 -- Reproduction (SNC 1D)

Unit 2 -- Reproduction Science, Grade 9, Academic (SNC1D)




1. Introduction to unit

Introduce the unit as the science course biology unit, and give a short note which explains the various topics in the unit. Motivate this by talking about various living animals, and plants that are permanently on display around the room, and discussing general interest aspects about each.

2. Cell theory

a. Definition of a cell

Motivate this section by introducing the Big Scientific Questions information sheet which includes selected questions from the relevant chapter openings throughout SciencePower 9. Questions are discussed, answers provided, and related to the asexual division of cells.

Big Scientific Questions worksheet which will be developed throughout the course

b. Cell structures and functions

Give a graphic and text note on cells & cell theory (basic unit of life, four premises of cell theory, cell size, cell form, cell functions, cellularity and multi-cellularity)

Notes based on SciencePower 9 p. 11 and elsewhere in chapter

c. Animal and plant cells compared

Give a drawing of an animal cell, and label the following organelles: cytoplasm, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitocohondrion, golgi body, lysosome, chromosomes, chromatin, cell membrane. On the back of the diagram, complete a chart which provides definitions of each. Use these definitions to tell a brief story of how cell organelles work together like for example, the organs of the human body.

With a drawing of a plant cell, label all of these that are visible, and add cell wall and chloroplast as labels and in a definitions chart.

With a drawing of the nucleus exploded, label the chromosomes, and how DNA is wound into the chromosomes

Complete a reinforcement worksheet on cell organelles.

Using bromothymol blue stained cheek cells as animal cells (scraped from interior of mouth), and iodine stained pieces of onion bulb as plant cells (cut thinly) make slides and draw several cells of each type. Label any organelles visible with the 10x objective. Additionally, draw and label one more plant (any green plant product) or animal cell (any protist visible in pond water)

Parts of an Animal Cell worksheet, and overhead

Parts of a Plant Cell worksheet and overhead

Inside the Nucleus worksheet and overhead

SciencePower 9 BLM 1-10

Lab List 2-1; Microscope Drawing worksheets

3. Mitosis

a. Definitions

On a worksheet package that provides space to take notes and develop an overview of mitosis fill in a definition of mitosis (the process by which a cell reproduces itself making sure that the new cell is the same). Also provide reminder definitions of the parts of the cell involved (nucleus, chromosomes, DNA, cytoplasm).

Mitosis: Making an Identical Cell worksheet package

b. Process

Also on the worksheet package, students draw pictures of a nucleus under mitosis, labeling chromosomes, spindle fibres, nuclear membrane and centrioles at each of the five phases). At each phase space is provided to take notes about the key features.

SciencePower 9 p. 18-19; above worksheet

c. Cell Cycle

Space is also provided on the worksheet to recreate the pie chart of the cell cycle, including several questions based on the pie chart.

SciencePower 9 p. 23 and questions under Figure 1.13; above worksheet

d. Observing Mitosis

Using prepared slides of two animal and a plants undergoing mitosis, observe general differences among specimens using a guiding lab worksheet. Attempt to identify which stages of cell cycle in Parascaris slides using 40x objective.

Complete a reinforcement worksheet on mitosis and the cell cycle.

Lab List 2-2; Observing Mitosis worksheet modified from SciencePower 9 p. 20-21

Worksheet based on SciencePower 9 BLM 1-16

4. Asexual reproduction

a. Definition

Give a graphic and text note defining asexual reproduction as the process by which an organism creates an identical copy of itself, illustrating the binary fission mother-daughter cell process. Mitosis is the genetic mechanism of asexual reproduction that ensure mother and daughter have identical genetic material.

b. Types

Provide a worksheet with a table of organisms that reproduce asexually (bacteria, Amoeba, moulds, Planaria, Hydra, asparagus, strawberry, chrysanthemum, and columns for description/illustration of the organism, process of asexual reproduction, and type of asexual reproduction. Notes on each are made from textbook pages. Motivate the illustrations of the asexual reproduction processes using overhead blackline masters.

Types of Asexual Reproduction worksheet; SciencePower 9, p. 29-40; Overheads of SciencePower 9 BLM 1-28 through 1-31

c. Population growth by binary fission

On a worksheet which explains that bacteria reproduce by binary fission, complete a table of population growth, plot a graph, and answer questions.

Population Growth by Binary Fission worksheet based on SciencePower 9 p. 30

5. Mid-Unit Review & Quiz

Oral review of unit so far, including reinforcement worksheets.

Quiz emphasizing knowledge/understanding and inquiry

SciencePower 9 BLM 1-32 and 1-33

6. Sexual reproduction

a. Definition

Motivate this section by reviewing the Big Scientific Questions information sheet. Questions are discussed, answers provided, and related to the asexual division of cells.

In a short graphic and text note, sexual reproduction is defined as the process involved in producing non-identical offspring. Illustrate with sperm & egg as one example. Demonstrate photographs of family resemblances.

Big Scientific Questions information sheet

b. Genetic variation

Collect genetic variation data in the school population for four characters (tongue rolling, thumb bending, earlobe attachment, and hairline shape) using a data collection and analysis question worksheet (including bar graphing, and comparison to data for a California population)

Photographs of family resemblances (e.g. SciencePower 9 p. 46)

c. How sex works

A graphic and text note demonstrates sex in a picture, fertilization, somatic cells as well as haploid and diploid chromosomes. Meiosis is introduced as the reason for genetic variation, and how egg and sperm cells are made.

Sex at Work in Our School worksheet based on SciencePower 9 BLM 2-1 and 2-2

d. Meiosis

The key steps in meiosis are introduced in outline using a cut and paste worksheet. Mitosis and meiosis are compared for reinforcement.

SciencePower 9 BLM 2-12 and 2-14

e. Sex in animals

Using a table worksheet with various animals that reproduce using a variety of forms of internal/external fertilization and hermaphroditism (elk, arctic hares, sea anemones, sockeye salmon, sponges, pickerel frog, garter snake, killdeer, assassin bugs, Cecropia moth, duck-billed platypus, opossum, snail, and earthworm) complete details about where sperm and egg meet, how and where offspring develop, and the type of sexual reproduction involved. Details gleaned from text and photographs from textbook. Also: advantages of internal vs external.

Sex in Animals worksheet using SciencePower 9 p. 54-59

f. Sex in plants

Using a line drawing of cross-section of a typical flower, label the key elements (stamen, anthers, pollen grains, filaments, stigma, style, ovary, ovules, pistil) and take a note on the function of each part.

Show students a series of slides on pollination biology. As they watch they complete a worksheet recording examples of each type of pollination strategy discussed.

Introduce an assignment where students design a flower of their own which has one or two pollination strategies of their choice. Motivate this by showing line drawings of various flowers and their reproduction strategies.

Sheet containing a line drawing of a cross-section of a flower (e.g., SciencePower 9 BLM 2-26)

Lab List 2-3; How to Pollinate a Flower worksheet

Design A Flower assignment sheet, and Plant Sex Anatomy overhead and information sheet

7. Human pregnancy

a. Human reproductive structures

Provide an unlabelled diagram of male and female human reproductive structures, and label key structures and take notes on functions (testis, seminal vesicle, penis, urethra, uterus, ovary, vagina, fallopian tube)

Line drawing of male and female human reproductive structures and overhead

b. Key events in pregnancy

Take a graphic and text note on the key events in pregnancy (intercourse, ovulation, fertilization, implantation, first, second and third trimester, birth, also terms: zygote, embryo, fetus)

Read an information handout on identical twins, and answer short comprehension questions about human pregnancy and summary questions on the text given.

Information based on SciencePower 9 p. 91, 95-98, 103

Identical Twins Questions based on SciencePower 9 BLM 3-14

8. Human development

a. Overview

Show the Miracle of Life video. Video is paused in places to allow students to answer questions on what they have seen, building an understanding of human development.

Miracle of Life video; Human Development and the Miracle of Life worksheet

b. Fetal development

Use a Pregnancy and Birth instructional poster to illustrate key phases of the process as reinforcement.

Complete a study of a fetal development using images in the textbook. Results are recorded on a worksheet table.

Pregnancy and Birth instructional poster

Fetal Development worksheet based on SciencePower 9 p. 99

9. Human cloning

Take a short note on ethics, ethical issues, and why they are complicated on a description sheet. Discuss how there are many points of view on ethical issues, and many people who think that their view is the "right" one. Complete the talbe on the sheet with examples (e.g. abortion, animal experimentation, and mammal cloning)

Discuss methods of cloning mammals, using an overhead of Dolly the sheep. Emphasize that the process is very new, error-prone, and a complicated ethical issue.

Hand out information sheets of arguments FOR and AGAINST human cloning. Answer comprehension and application questions based on these sheets.

Introduce a short assignment where students will express their position on human cloning by writing their last will and testament for a future and imaginary world where peoples' genetic material is automatically saved and frozen after they die. Students must decide what will be done with their genetic material, giving instructions and reasons in the text of their will for their children to follow.

Three Ethical Issues description sheet providing room for notes on three points of view on three ethical issues

overhead of SciencePower 9 BLM 4-10.

information sheets with arguments FOR and AGAINST human cloning (from internet sources); Human Cloning Controversy worksheet

"Will" I Live Forever? assignment sheet

10. Unit review & test

Unit review package with appropriate summarizing and thinking questions.

Unit test emphasizing knowledge/understanding, making connections, and inquiry.

Unit 2 Review worksheet package

Unit 2 Test

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